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Live Resin: Wet Plant Extraction

Orangey Live Resin Bubbles


Live Resin: Wet Plant Extraction

Photo courtesy Nectar's Collective

Live Resin: Wet Plant Extraction

Initially coined in 2013, the definition of wet plant extraction varies from state to state.

The term live resin was coined by Colorado hash legend Kind Bill in the summer of 2013. It originally referred specifically to the butane hash oil (BHO) made from fresh frozen trim, a process that’s been around since the early 1990s, when Kenneth Morrow of the infamous Trichome Technologies began employing and writing about it.

In Colorado, fresh frozen (also called wet plant extraction) is an extremely popular hash making technique for cold water and BHO hashes. In this process, fresh trim and/or buds are harvested and immediately frozen – usually in glass tubes for BHO blasting or bags for cold water. As with many great inventions, the fresh frozen process was discovered accidentally, when Bill needed work for his hash makers and decided to run some fresh material. After they blasted and opened the container of BHO, the whole room filled up with an incredibly rich, terpey smell. He immediately knew he was on to something.

Given that terpenes degrade extremely fast, the fresh frozen process is beneficial because it removes a much higher amount of terpenes. Imagine grinding up a bud but not rolling it up immediately – the smell begins to dissipate quickly. After this discovery, they started making all their hash this way and immediately began attracting a loyal following for their products. As word circulated through Colorado about this new style of hash making, others followed Kind Bill’s lead and began using fresh frozen trim to make their hash.

Nikka T of Essential Extracts was the first major cold water producer to pick up on the new trend. Within short order, he was winning Cannabis Cups around the nation with his delicious terpene-rich, golden melts – many of them classic “clear dome” full melts. There are dispensaries that sell what they call full melt hash. When you light it, it doesn’t come anywhere close to fully melting. True full melt will not only behave as the name suggests, it will also have a clear dome of resin which rises up from the pipe or rig when lit. This “clear dome” hash is truly the finest that the cold water world has to offer and the fresh frozen process produces some of the best versions.

The prevalence of greater amounts of fresh frozen material in Colorado was surely due to the abundance of flowers in the marketplace. This was before legalization started in 2014 and soon after there was a shortage of high-quality material to make hash. Essential Extracts even went offline briefly due to this shortage. Fortunately for hash connoisseurs in Colorado, they are back up to full production. The laws regarding vertical integration in Colorado changed on Jan. 1, 2014 and now the opposite situation is happening – markets are starting to be flooded with product, dropping wholesale prices. This is great news for concentrate makers and patients, but not so good for growers.

California started seeing “live resin” products begin to hit the shelves of dispensaries about a year ago. The meaning of live resin transformed when it hit the Golden State. Fresh frozen trim is not common in California. Dry trim, on the other hand, exists in massive amounts. The new California version of live resin was now being defined as BHO hashes that were still capable of changing form after being blasted. Until a BHO extract is taken to its final stable or “absolute” form the terpenes are in a state of flux and therefore still considered “live.” You can see this process with some shatters when upon exposure to air they begin to crystalize. This happens due to the terpenes changing form. When Kind Bill was asked about this new, expanded California definition of live resin, he said he was comfortable with it. It will be interesting to see if this new definition catches on in Colorado, Washington and other legal and medical markets.

New techniques and definitions are spread, adopted and changed at a rapid pace in this industry. One of the strongest proponents of these new definitions is a concentrate from Nectars Collective. The collective’s founder was part of making the original Holy Water before leaving and making the same product – but calling it Terp Juice. The product is made from all small buds and has a terpene content of almost 25 percent terps versus the 3-5 percent more commonly seen in most concentrates. The cost of using flowers and the small returns drive the price up to over $100 a gram to patients.

To counteract this high price point, Nectars started mixing small amounts of the juice with either a crumble or a shatter. These resulting products are labeled as jelly and nectars. These are priced around $60 gram retail. The Terp Juice is not considered live since it’s at an absolute or stable state. When mixed with the crumbles or the waxes it still will move towards its final state, thus still being live, by the California standard.

Whether you accept one or the other definition or none at all, what’s most interesting is that our industry continues to create, innovate and move forward producing amazing new versions of the cannabis products that could only be dreamed about before. Five years ago, the industry didn’t regularly engage in lab testing and now any legitimate dispensary tests its medicine. Most of the early BHO at that time was highly contaminated. Now, the quality of many BHO products, both those made from fresh frozen or dry trim, speaks for itself.

The cannabis industry continues to grow, morph and change faster than anyone can keep up with it. Our ability to change, adapt and innovate is one of our greatest strengths. This ability will allow us to face the challenges together and bring the benefits of this healing plant we all love so much to the rest of the world.

[Originally published in issue 15 of Cannabis Now Magazine.]

Have you ever tried live resin? Tell us about it in the comment.



  1. Cannabis Truther

    October 31, 2015 at 8:12 am

    Having met Rick P. I know he is a man dedicated to the truth and the complete understanding of all things Cannabis, but come on now. This article is Silly.

    I really don’t know who ‘Kind Bill’ is, but anyone who ‘invented’ fresh frozen might want to be given an actual last name. Also, if you have never met Kind Bill, but decided to blast some fresh material one day in California, does that also make you the inventor of fresh frozen? Or do you have to defer to an unknown entity who figured out something minor along the way?

    I now know I can credit “Kind Bill” for coining the term Live Resin. This has been an absolute scourge on the industry and the biggest and fakest description of concentrates to date. Most people, including those who label their products “Live Resin”, haven’t actually ever seen Live Resin as it truly exists. Maybe more of Kind Bill’s sliding definition of it. If you ever get to Live Resin, it only has a shelf life of about 48-72 hours after processing. The rest is just good concentrates from good material. Anything that goes from Shatter to sugar is just unstable, not live. Shatter to sugar is simply THCa crystallization.

    Lastly, companies like “Nectars Collective” who have high terpene extracts and who surprisingly don’t call them ‘Live Resin’ (as I thought the term was used because of the high terpene percents) have a limited shelf life. These products are available in Colorado and Washington because of strict processing regulations put forth by those states. Due to California’s refusal up to now to require cannabis processors to meet regulations has allowed for unregulated processing of cannabis. However, California will begin enforcement soon, which will drive these companies and their products from the market.

    Most of these high terpene extracts are a result of “Open Blasting”, a practice that is still in use today despite the stigma.

    Patients who value purity in solvents used, and clean medicine practices should be very worried about these extracts. Not to say some have a higher purity standard than others, but when you don’t reclaim and reuse your solvent, it tends to be too expensive to purchase the 99.9% pure variety.

    But don’t let me cast doubt on any of these great companies and their practices.

    Just ask them for their last 5 invoices for gas purchases, that is something that is indisputable.

    • bob

      June 14, 2016 at 5:44 pm

      i will be making live as far as i understand it..fresh flash frozen then processed frozen in closed loop system…

      i have questions now

      how do i recover all of the gas from material when it is frozen???

      should i use the soak option ??? or just run thru???

      how do i store the material

      will it keep inside a vape pen????

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